Total Brain Functioning
Cross-sectional and longitudental study of effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on interhemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence
Fred Travis and Alarik Arenander, International J. Neuroscience, 116:1519–1538, 2006
Two studies investigated frontal alpha lateral asymmetry and frontal interhemispheric coherence during eyes-closed rest, Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice, and computerized reaction-time tasks. In the first study, frontal coherence and lateralized asymmetry were higher in 13 TM subjects than in 12 controls. In the second study (N = 14), a one-year longitudinal study, lateral asymmetry did not change in any condition. In contrast, frontal coherence increased linearly during computer tasks and eyes-closed rest, and as a step-function during TM practice—rising to a high level after 2-months TM practice. Coherence was more sensitive than lateral asymmetry to effects of TM practice on brain functioning.
Total Brain Functioning: Summary Graphic
Unified Field Chart: Physiology is Consciousness
Brainwave Coherence and Correlates of Mind-Body Health & Well-Being
Significant correlations of brain integration and mental and physical balance in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation® technique
Transcendental Meditation Creates Well-Being: Feeling Better, Living Longer, Accomplishing More, and Paying Less for Medical Bills
Consciousness-Based Education: Scientific Research
Decades of research document the ability of Consciousness-Based education to promote development toward the full creative potential of brain functioning
Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: Implications for cortical integration theory
Russell Hebert, Dietrich Lehmann, Gabriel Tan, Fred Travis, Alarik Arenander, Signal Processing Journal, 85:2213-2232, 2005
Information transfer and integration in the brain that leads to high-level cognitive processes requires neuronal coordination. High phase synchronization (zero-lag) in fast frequencies is implicated in integrating sensory events. Alpha EEG activity, long regarded as a passive ??idling?? frequency, is now being implicated in this integrative function. As an example, in brain pathology decreased alpha phase synchrony is correlated with a decline in cognitive function. Transcendental Meditation (TM) provides an interesting starting point to study neuronal coordination because the ??transcending?? experience is a baseline state of consciousness, a condition of restful alertness without cognitive activity. Previous work on TM, reported to increase numerous indices of mind?body health, has been shown to increase neural coherence in the alpha band. In this study 15 subjects practicing the TM technique were investigated for changes in alpha phase synchrony. A time-domain method was used to measure millisecond phase shifts in 19 electrodes in longterm practitioners of TM in two conditions: eyes-closed resting and meditation. Significant reductions in millisecond phase lag were found during the meditation condition as compared to the eyes-closed resting condition in 30 of 49 longrange electrode pairings between frontal and occipito-parietal areas. Under the same conditions, twelve control subjects without meditation experience showed no change in alpha phase synchrony over the same time period. It is proposed that enhanced phase synchrony in the alpha frequency during meditation may improve functional integration and may have implications for performance and mind?body health. A short proposal for a phase synchrony model of consciousness is included.